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X-Ray Diffraction - Phase identification and Quantification

X-ray diffraction (XRD) is a versatile, non-destructive technique for material characterisation. It is used to determine phase composition (i.e. mineralogical, chemical and crystalline compounds), structure, texture, etc of powdered or solid samples.

XRD is generally the fastest and most reliable method for identification and quantification of crystalline materials. Just about any sample type can be analysed to give a diffraction pattern that can then be used to identify and/or quantify phases present.
We offer the following XRD Services:
  • Qualitative Analysis -  identification of phases/compounds present in the sample
  • Siroquant Quantitative Analysis - We quantify the amount of each phase present in the sample using our own Siroquant Rietveld analysis Software
  • Amorphous Material Quantification - As per Siroquant analysis, but we can also determine the amount of amorphous (non-crystalline) material present in the sample
  • Clay Analysis - We perform a clay extraction and treatment of clays as per the US Geological Survey guidelines to identify and classify the clays present in the sample.

XRD Applications

Raw Clay

Speciation and quantification of clay minerals including:

  • Kaolinites

  • Halloysites

  • Smectites

  • Illite

  • Chlorite

Clays are treated with ethylene glycol and heated to 400c and 550c as per USGS guidelines for clay identification.

We can also analyse and idenfity Halloysites in samples via XRD and if required SEM analysis.

View our Sample Report for an example of clay analysis.

Concrete and Cements
  • Free Lime

  • Fly Ash

  • Clinker

  • Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC)

  • Iron sulfide (pyrite, marcasites, etc) in aggregate 

Geological samples
  • Ore and gangue mineral identification and quantification

  • Magnetic Separation of iron bearing minerals 

  • Mineral Sands Analysis (ore to concentrate)

  • Mineralogy of core, boreholes and stratigraphic units

  • Coal mineralogy and Coal Ash Analysis

  • Poorly Diffracting Material (amorphous) in Bauxites.

  • Gold Exploration- Screening XRF analysis for “indicator elements” for hundreds of samples, giving vital information on concentrations of these elements in quick turn-around time to aid decision making and targeting potential areas for further detailed analysis and exploration.

Vitamins and pills

We can provide XRD services for Pharmaceutical labs including:

  • Quality control of production

  • Identification of contaminants/impurities

  • Active Pharmacentical Ingredient (API) confirmation

  • Unknown compound and counterfit drup identiciation

Industrial and Metallurgical Samples
  • Scale and pipe build up

  • Geosynthetic Clay Liner (GCL)- Analysis for quality control purposes

  • Paint and Pigment analysis

  • Ceramics

  • Identification and separation of Leaded Glass

  • Phase composition of refractory bricks

  • Sand analysis for Glass industry (iron content)

  • Diatomaceous Earth Analysis

  • Corrosion Product Analysis

  • Process Metallurgy

  • Analysis of silica forms- Identification of SiO2 forms i.e. Quartz, Cristobalite, Trydimite

  • Amorphous / Poorly Diffracting Material / Glass analysis

  • Asbestos speciation

  • Air filter dust analysis

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